On Turkish Claims as Third Rome

BeritaDEKHO - Quora.com: Who has more of a claim to the "Third Rome", The Russia/Russian Empire or Turkey/Ottoman Empire?

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD, Mehmed II declared himself Kayser-i Rum, literally "Caesar of Rome".

The claim was recognized by the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople, but not by Roman Catholic Western Europe. Gennadios (Georgios Scholarios), a staunch enemy of the West, had been enthroned Patriarch of Constantinople with all the ceremonial attributes of Byzantium by Mehmed himself acting as Roman Emperor and in turn Gennadios recognized Mehmed as successor to the throne.

Mehmed's claim rested with the concept that Constantinople was the seat of the Roman Empire, after the transfer of its capital to Constantinople in 330 AD and the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Mehmed also had a blood lineage to the Byzantine Imperial family; his predecessor, Sultan Orhan I had married a Byzantine princess, and Mehmed may have claimed descent from John Tzelepes Komnenos.

During that period the Ottoman Empire also destroyed Otranto and its people, and Mehmed II was planning on taking Rome itself when the Italian campaign was cut short by his sudden death.

The title fell into disuse after his death, but the imperial bodies created by Mehmed II lived on for centuries to come.


Berk Yuksel, University Student. Industrial Engineering Major - Business Minor.

Ottomans had more of a claim without a doubt.

Answer of this question lies in itself. What is rome ? It is Roman Republic (Then Empire). It is not catholic Rome of middle age. Second rome is Oriental Roman Empire. First one was pagan (polytheistic), second one was orthodox christian.

Claiming roman legacy from religion is out of question. First of all, first rome refers to Roman Republic (then Empire) which was pagan(polytheistic). Second rome was Oriental Roman Empire (christian), there is no correlation of religion between the first and the second rome. First roman who converted to christianity was Constantine the Great before christians were even persecuted in Rome. Constantine the Great is the name giver of Constantinople who moved capital from Rome to Constantinople. There is no christianity in first rome which rhetoric originates from.

Ottoman claim to Roman Legacy comes from governmental and artistic adoptation. Ottoman Empire adopted nearly all of its form of governmental structure from Oriental Roman Empire while Ottomans was becoming from a feodal kingdom to an Empire. Even classical (before baroque, neogothic era) Ottoman Architecture is quite similar Roman Architecture (See Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, Selimiye Mosque).

Ottoman also has claims to Roman legacy on the basis of multiculturalism. All subjects of Ottoman Empire regardless of religion and race were considered Ottoman. This could have been sustained for very long time because as adopted from Oriental Roman Empire, power of emperor was absolute and over religious authority.See Ferman of Mehmed The Conquerorhacettepe.edu.tr  about Bosnian Christians in 1978.

Ottoman also had territorial claims as Constantinople was the capital of Roman Empire. After conquest, Mehmed the Conqueror was crowned by Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople as new Caesar of Romans (Kayser-i Rum in Turkish). After this, patriarchate of Constantinople mostly referred to Ottoman Emperors as Kayser-i Rum in their documents.

Also, Ottoman had couple royal marriages with directly dynasty of Oriental Roman Empire. One of the example is Theodora Kantakouzene (wife of Orhan I), princess of Roman Empire, daughter of Emperor. But it is not something that important. No sides were recognizing each other as successor of Romans (Ottomans referred to Holy Roman Empire of German Nation simply as German King etc in their diplomatic talks). Blood line does not give a cultural legacy hence why I said I did not find royal marriages important.

Ayhan Bilgili

Ottoman Empire for conquering the capital of Eastern Roman Empire Constantinople.

Ottomans also protected Orthodox Church (Habsburg Empire could veto the chosen Pope in Vatican while Ottomans let Orthodox Church to operate autonomously). Even before World War I, European power tried to undermine the authority of Orthodox Church bu supporting Catholic and Protestant faiths in Ottoman Empire, both Ottoman State and Orthodox Church resisted this together.

Another important aspect is:

4 out of 5 Apostolic See was under Ottoman Empire (Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem)

Moscow or St. Petersburg was and not Apostolic city. (You may believe Christianity or the rules of it but this is normally how it works. Political power overrides theological views of course)

And when Ottoman Empire ended the Byzantium, it followed the government system -in general- Byzantium had.

When we look at religion and government style and geography, Ottomans have more rights to make such claim. Sultan Mehmet II used the title in his official documents as well. (adm)

Nb. Yuk gabung IICH dan IMECH 
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